Individuals who file bankruptcy usually file under either Chapter 7 or Chapter 13 of the Bankruptcy code. Although they are both types of bankruptcy cases, they differ greatly in their operation.
Chapter 13 bankruptcy involves a court-supervised repayment plan. The person filing Chapter 13 makes a payment each month to a court-appointed bankrutpcy trustee who then distributes that money to the person's creditors. Not all debts are treated the same in Chapter 13. Some debts such as child support arrearages and back taxes are treated as "priority" debts and must be paid in full during the term of the repayment plan. Debts that are secured by collateral (e.g. car loans) are also usually paid off through the plan. Unsecured debts like credit cards bills and medical bills are often wiped out and not repaid anything through the plan.
Some people are forced to file Chapter 13 instead of Chapter 7 because they either make too much money or have too much property. Other people choose to undertake the repayment plan associated with Chapter 13 as a way to force a non-cooperative creditor to accept payments.